Scoliosis is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine, either to the left or to the right. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a type of scoliosis that occurs in children between 10 and 16 years of age. The term “idiopathic” means that the cause of scoliosis is unknown. The exact cause of idiopathic scoliosis is unknown in most of the cases, but there seems to be a genetic predisposition. The incidence is higher among girls compared to boys.
This type of spondylolisthesis occurs because of a defect in the pars interarticularis part of the vertebra. This is more common in athletes and gymnasts as they often suffer from overuse injuries.
This subtype is a congenital condition, present at birth, and is caused because of abnormal bone formation of the facet part of the vertebra resulting in spondylolisthesis.
pondylolisthesis is the displacement of vertebral disc from the spinal column. Outward (forward) displacement is termed as anterolisthesis and inward (backward) displacement is termed as retrolisthesis. This condition is often preceded by spondylolysis, a degenerative condition of the vertebra.
Non-surgical treatment is preferred over surgery and includes rest, activity modification, and pain medication which includes non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants and epidural analgesic injections. Back braces are recommended for a few days to keep the lower back still and reduce mechanical pain due to movement. Physical therapy or acupuncture may be helpful in some cases.
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Bracing: Bracing is recommended to prevent the progression of the scoliotic curve. It is effective in growing children with a spinal curvature between 20° and 40°.
Observation- If scoliosis is mild with a curve of less than 15 to 20 degrees, the child is observed for a specified period of time, to monitor the curve.
Your spine surgeon can discuss all aspects of the procedure, including risks and benefits, so that you and your child are well informed. If your child develops signs and symptoms suggestive of AIS, consult your doctor immediately. He/she is the most reliable resource to answer all your questions and help you understand the condition better.
Surgical correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis may be necessary if non-surgical treatment fails and if the curvature is severe. The aim of the surgery is to correct the curve, prevent curve progression and to stabilize the spine. Scoliosis surgery usually involves spinal instrumentation (i.e. rods, screws) and fusion (bone graft) that secures the spine to stop curve progression.